here I report some definitions of interesting wikipedia to deepen the theme of wine.
- 3History of wine
- 5Classification of wines
- 6The conservation of wine
- 7Distillation of wine
- 8The consumption of wine
- 9Wine production
- 10.1European Union
- 10.2Italian legislation
- 11Flavored wine products
- 12Health effects of wine
- 15Related items
- 16Other projects
- 17External links
Generality[modification | edit wikitext]
The wine can also be obtained from grapes belonging to crosses of the Vitis vinifera with other species of the genus Vitis (e.g. the Vitis labrusca or the Vitis rupestris) and from grapes of species of Vitis different (such as the Vitis chunganensis).
In Italy (and in allEuropean Union), to protect a product of higher quality, price and value, the fermentation product of grapes that are not Vitis vinifera. So the term, in the case of marketing different fermented, must be omitted. A common system to overcome this prohibition is, for example, to simply quote the name of the grape variety used, obviously without mentioning the term "wine".
With this drink you can also create a distillate which, if aged for at least 12 months in wood, takes the name of brandy. The quality and diversity between wines depend strictly on vine, from climate, from ground, from the exposure of this with respect to solar radiation and by the more or less accurate cultivation of the vine itself.
Etymology[modification | edit wikitext]
Wine derives directly from Latin Vinum, from a theme Mediterranean from which also derives the ancient Greek ϝοῖνος woînos, classic οἶνος oinos, L'Jewish יין yayin and theArmenian գինի gini. The Latin word was paid all 'umbrian, atOsco, to the falisco vinu, atEtruscan vin (um), to the leponzio vinom; in more recent times, Vinum was loaned to Celtic languages, at Germanic languages and from these to Finnish viini. Even the terms Slavs for wine they are likely to be Latin loans. The hypothesis that Vinum has an Indo-European origin, common toHittite wiyan, has little credit today.
History of wine[modification | edit wikitext]
In Upper Valdarno have been found in deposits of lignite, fossil finds of vine branches (Vitis vinifera) dating back 2 million years. Several archaeological finds show that the Vitis vinifera it was growing spontaneous already 300,000 years ago. Recent studies tend to associate early tasters with that beverage already at neolithic; the discovery was thought to be random and due to fermentation natural happened in containers where men put the grapes. The oldest traces of vine cultivation have been found on the banks of the Caspian Sea and in the Turkey Oriental. In 2010 in Sicily At the underground complexes of Mount Kronio (Sciacca) and in the excavation of Sant’Ippolito di Caltagirone, the related residues from the winemaking process were discovered in a Copper Age jar, located at the beginning of the fourth millennium BC. and represent the oldest evidence of Europe.
During 20th century archaeologists stumbled upon the oldest jar of wine ever found. In 1996, in fact, an American archaeological mission, coming from the University of Pennsylvania and directed by Mary Voigt, she discovered in the Neolithic village of Hajji Firuz Tepe, in the northern part of theIran, a terracotta jar, with a capacity of 9 liters, containing one dry substance coming from bunches of grapes. The news, reported by Corriere Scienza on 15 October 2002, adds that the finds found date back to 5100 BC, then 7000 years ago, but specialists say that the wine was produced for the first time, perhaps casually, between 9 and 10000 years ago in the area of Caucasus. In fact, it seems that the first wine was produced entirely by chance (as happened with leavened bread) due to the accidental fermentation of forgotten grapes in a container.
It is however ascertained that the large-scale production of wine began between 4100 and 4000 B.C. dating inherent to the findings of the first winery found in the cave complex of the Armenian municipality of Areni.
The first documents concerning the cultivation of the vine date back to 1700 BC, but it is only with civilization Egyptian that there is the development of crops and consequently the production of wine.
There Bible (Genesis 9.20-27) attributes the discovery of the wine making process to Noah: after the Great Flood, he would plant a vineyard with the fruit of which he made wine which he drank until he got drunk. The Christianity sees in the wine a symbol of the blood of Jesus Christ, which during theLast Supper he defined "for the new and eternal covenant, paid for many in remission of sins". The Catholicism, in particular, consider wine the species under which, in the sacrament ofEucharist, the blood of Jesus Christ would actually be present.
Under theRoman Empire there was a further impulse to the production of wine, which went from being an elitist product to becoming a drink for daily use. During this period the vine crops spread over a large part of the territory (in particular in Italy, Gaul Narbonensis, Hispania, Acaia is Syria), and as production increased, consumption also increased. In 1867 the was found in Germany bottle of Speyer wine dated between 325 and 350 AD which is known as the oldest still closed bottle of wine in the world.
In any case, the wine produced at that time in the Mediterranean area was very different from the drink we know today: due to the winemaking and conservation techniques (especially the boiling), wine turned out to be a substance syrupy, very sweet and very alcoholic. It was therefore necessary to lengthen it with water and add honeyis spices to get a flavor more pleasant.
With the collapse of the Roman Empire there viticulture enters a crisis from which it will emerge only in Middle Ages, thanks above all to the impulse given by the monks Benedictine is Cistercians. In the same Rule, Blessed he claims:
«It is well read that wine is absolutely not convenient for monks; also because in our times it is difficult for the monks to be persuaded, we also allow this, so that we do not drink until satiety. "
In the course of the Middle Ages all those cultivation and production techniques that will arrive practically unchanged until XVIII century, when production now has a "modern" character. This thanks to the stabilization of quality and taste of wines, as well as the introduction of bottles of glass and caps cork.
In nineteenth century L'powdery mildew and the phylloxera, vine diseases fromAmerica, destroy huge quantities of vineyards. Growers are forced to graft the vines that survived over vines of origin American (Vitis labrusca), resistant to these parasites, and to use regularly plant protection products like it sulfur.
In Twentieth century instead we have, initially by the France, the introduction of regulations that regulate production (controlled origin, definition of production territories, etc.) which will lead to a qualitative increase in the production of wine at the expense of quantity.
winemaking[modification | edit wikitext]
The name derives from the Greek oinos (wine) e logos (study).
Chemical composition of wine[modification | edit wikitext]
In addition to these components, wine contains many other substances, some of which are desired, as they give a pleasant taste to the wine or have a positive effect on health (for example the polyphenols and the anthocyanins), while other substances are unwanted, as they give an unpleasant taste to the wine or have a negative effect on health (for example thesulfur dioxide, whose maximum concentration is set by law, being highly toxic).
The following table shows the typical concentration values of the main components of the wine:
|Component||Chemical formula||% by volume||% by weight||% in moles||Note||Source|
|water||H2OR||70-90||82-85,4||92,6-94,1||It is the component of the wine with the highest concentration|||
|Ethyl alcohol||C2H5OH||9-16||6,9-11,7||2,9-5,1||It is produced during the alcoholic fermentation of the sugars present in the grapes. Its volume percentage corresponds to alcoholic strength|||
|Acetaldehyde||CH3CHO||0,5-30||0,37-18,1||0,17-9,1||It is a secondary product of alcoholic fermentation|
|Glycerol||C3H8OR3||0,32-1,19||0,37-1,38||0,08-0,3||It is a secondary product of alcoholic fermentation. Its concentration increases with increasing alcohol content|||
|Tartaric acid||C4H6OR6||0,17-0,45||0,28-0,73||0,02-0,1||Present in grapes|||
|Lactic acid||C3H6OR3||0,08-0,33||0,09-0,37||0,02-0,08||Produced by malolactic fermentation|||
|Malic acid||HOOCCH (OH) CH2COOH||0-0,44||0-0,64||0-0,1||Present in grapes|||
Other components of the wine are:
- methyl alcohol: particularly toxic; it is formed by the action of enzymes on the pectins contained in the grape skin;
- higher alcohols (i.e. with carbon atoms greater than 2);
- butylene is succinic acid: secondary products of alcoholic fermentation;
- acetic acid: secondary product of alcoholic fermentation; its concentration can be high if there is no adequate cleaning of the containers used for the production of wine;
- sugars: some ferment to give alcohol (fructose, glucose) for which there is only a fraction of them that has not completed fermentation, while others do not undergo fermentation (arabinose is xylose); sometimes sucrose is added to the wine during its production, but this sugar is not present in the final product as it reacts quickly;
- citric acid: is an organic acid present in grapes;
- nitrogen compounds is mineral salts: already present in grapes;
- phenolic compounds: in part they are present in the grapes and in part they are released by the wood of the cask during aging;
- aromatic compounds: they may already be present in the grape or formed during the wine production and aging process;
- vitamins: they are present in grapes; Vitamin C is not present in wine, as it is consumed during the process winemaking;
- carbon dioxide: produced during alcoholic fermentation; it has a lower concentration in aged wines;
- oxygen: absorbed by the wine during the production process;
- sulfur dioxide: it is particularly toxic; it is added in small percentages to regulate fermentation and how preservative.
Classification of wines[modification | edit wikitext]
Generality[modification | edit wikitext]
Wines can be classified according to different aspects. Here are the main ones.
- nation and, in the alternative, region/ area of origin;
- designation of origin or geographical indication of belonging. This is the main differentiation category. A wine (national, European, non-European which is the most frequent case) can also be "generic" or without a designation of origin or geographical indication;
- typology (stationary, crisp, sparkling wine, raisin, fortified, new, and, in the alternative, white, red, rosé);
- vine (variety of vine used for the production) from which the grapes come or better blend since the varieties used can be different. The most famous and widespread vines in the world (the so-called "international vines" or "Alloctoni") are among the reds the Cabernet-Sauvignon, the Cabernet franc, the Merlot, the Pinot noir, lo Zinfandel and the Syrah; among whites the Sauvignon, lo Chardonnay, the Muscat and the Riesling;
- band of price;
- producer (i.e. the winery that produced the wine) or (when they do not match) bottler; in the case of foreign wines (especially outside the EU), the importer or distributor also appears on the label (in the case of EU wines);
- certification (e.g. organic wine);
- organoleptic macro classification (young / mature, drinkable / demanding, light / powerful, dry / sweet, fruity / evolved and many others).
Other factors (more technical) can be: score assigned by the guides, dish / preparation to match, alcohol content, sensory characteristics, etc. The classification of wine from the point of production method (see below) is also increasingly important: conventional, organic, biodynamic, natural, vegan.
Classification by type[modification | edit wikitext]
The wines differ from each other in the system of winemaking (normal and special wines) and for the organoleptic properties: color, perfume, taste and aftertaste; other parameters combine to define the characteristics of a wine: alcohol, acidity, flavor, sensation of astringency (due to tannins). The wines can be differentiated into still wines (also called "still"), sparkling and sparkling wines, depending on whether they are capable of releasing carbon dioxide when the bottles are opened. Sparkling and sparkling wines form the category of effervescent wines as they have effervescence. The content in is a further distinction sugars unfermented wine (dry, semi-dry, sweet or other specific terms in the case of sparkling wines).
In addition, each wine is characterized by a temperature serving (ideal temperature for consumption) and optimal combinations with certain dishes.
Ordinary wines[modification | edit wikitext]
By ordinary wines are meant those wines released for consumption after having undergone the vinification process only (therefore without subsequent technical interventions or additions of other components).
- White wine
- The White wine it is produced with different techniques that work the white grape, in order to obtain only the juice and therefore eliminate the skins. It can also be produced from black berried grapes (for example pinot noir), immediately separating the skins from the juice, as opposed to the red winemaking process, which also involves macerating the skins to extract their color and contents. It has a yellow appearance in various shades (from greenish to amber, passing through straw and golden); it is generally characterized by floral and fruity aromas and should be consumed at a serving temperature between 8 ° C and 14 ° C; the taste prevails the sensations of freshness and acidity, although with increasing serving temperature unpleasant bitter sensations may occur. The optimal pairings are with dishes based on fish, clams, shellfish, vegetables is White meat, and in general with quick cooking dishes and sauces poorly structured.
- Rose wine
- The Rose wine it is produced using red grapes processed in order to obtain juice in quick contact with the skins, from 2 hours up to a maximum of about 36. In this way the skins transfer only part of the color to the must. Alternatively, the bleeding method can be used, which consists in removing part of the must during red winemaking (therefore in the presence of the skins), so as to obtain a rosé colored wine. It is completely forbidden to produce rosé wines by mixing white and red wine. The only exception is the assembly to obtain rosé sparkling wine. It has a color appearance between pale pink, cherry and claret; it is generally characterized by fruity aromas, and should be consumed at a serving temperature between 10 ° C and 14 ° C; the taste prevails sensations of light acidity, aromaticity and light body. The optimal pairings are with tasty fish dishes, pastas dry with delicate sauces, cured meat light. When it comes to sparkling wine the most usual term is rose instead of rosé.
- Red wine
- The Red wine it has a red appearance in various shades (from purple to ruby to garnet and orange), and is produced from the must macerated on the skins, so as to extract polyphenols and the coloring substances naturally present on them. It is generally characterized by a wide variety of perfumes (flowers, fruit, jam, herbs, spices) and by a more or less elevated sensation of softness, body and tannins; it must be consumed at a serving temperature between 14 ° C and 20 ° C. The optimal couplings are with the red meats, the game, i cheeses, and all dishes based on prolonged cooking and structured sauces.
- Orange wine
The orange wine, also known as orange wine, is produced from white grape varieties with maceration on the skins. This procedure causes the color to be typically amber and tending towards orange; depending on the process modifications, there are also gold-colored with various shades. They are almost always expressions of producers of natural wine or biodynamic wine. The possible production variants are different. Apart from the color, this particular procedure means that the "orange wines" (also called "macerated wines") have remarkably peculiar and extraordinary olfactory and gustatory characteristics.
- New wine
- The new wine is obtained by carbonic maceration. It has an intense color and strong secondary or fermentative aromas. It cannot be placed on the market before 30 October (in the recent past it was 6 November) each year and it is recommended to consume it in the first six months because it is not very stable. An optimal and typical pairing of new wine is with chestnuts, and consequently with food based on Chestnut flour, like necci is castagnaccio.
- Passito wine
- Obtained from dried grapes processed as for a normal vinification. The withering can take place naturally on the plant (thus carrying out the harvest late) or artificially placing the grapes on racks on which hot air is blown, or as a result of the so-called noble mold, or the Botrytis cinerea, which attacks the berries forming a surface blanket which evaporates the water contained in the grape, thus increasing the concentration of sugars.
- Vin bulldozer
- It is made with a wine blend of Carmignano DOCG through a short fermentation which slightly removes the red color of the grape skins. It is often confused by non-professionals with rosé or rosé wine, and as this is served at temperatures of the order of 10 ° C 14 ° C.
- Barricaded wine
- The barricaded wine is left to age in barrels of wood, with particular reference to durmast that you get from oaks, but also of locust-tree, Cherry tree and other essences. This procedure allows the wine to age slowly through a process of redox which occurs through the wooden fibers: it gives the wine a more intense aroma, a toasted smell and the taste will be more balanced and softer. Wood yields to wine i tannins hydrolyzable (which are softer than condensed), polymers of the catechins present in the peel of the grapes and in the seeds, and spicy hints (e.g. vanilla) and ethereal which will give the wine a precious bouquet. The most prestigious oak barrels for them performanceit's barriques French of 225 liters, manufactured exclusively with oak woods coming from forest of Allier. The fact of being able to count on woods that historically come from the same trees, allows winemakers to be able to establish different parameters for the aging of wines. It should be noted that it has become common practice for very commercial wine producers to add wood shavings to the wine to give the wine wood flavors and aromas: many winemakers believe that it is a false maneuver that cannot absolutely give to the treated wine the characteristics of a real aging in fine wooden barrels. In fact, it is believed that the effect of the shavings is mainly to give the wine hints of roasting without contributing to the aromatic evolution that is achieved thanks to the particular oxidative-reductive balances that are determined in the barriques. Furthermore, in the latter there are noble lees which are the basis of the aromatic evolution of the wine and in part of its stabilization. However, the specifications and / or legislation reduce the areas in which it is possible to use the wine chips.
- Sparkling wine
- It is a wine that shows a moderate effervescence due to the presence of carbon dioxide with an overpressure between 1 and 2.5 bar at room temperature. They are natural or gasified (the latter of mediocre quality). Natural ones are almost always made with the method Charmat.
- Sparkling wines must not be confused with sparkling which are special wines (and have a higher overpressure): a sparkling wine can be considered, in terms of effervescence and froth, halfway between a "still" wine (that is, without any presence of bubbles, ie a "still" wine) and a sparkling wine.
Special wines[modification | edit wikitext]
Special wines are those which, after the vinification process and before being released for consumption, undergo further technical interventions or the addition of other components. This is the relevant difference with ordinary wines. It should be noted that, by law and therefore for "technical" treatments, raisin wines are not special, as are sparkling wines.
Special wines are:
- Wine sparkling wine: following a traditional vinification as for a normal wine, the so-called Liquer de Tirage or yeasts is added, monosaccharides (brown sugar) and minerals, in order to cause a refermentation that can take place in the bottle (Classic method o champenoise) or in autoclave (Charmat method or Martinotti)
- Fortified wine
- Flavored wine
Classification on production method[modification | edit wikitext]
From the point of view of the ways in which the processes are carried out (in the countryside and in the cellar) or in relation to the use of techniques and procedures for growing vines, obtaining grapes and producing wine in terms of impact on the environment, respect tradition, adherence to sector regulations, compliance with specifications or attention to specific philosophies and production theories, we currently have:
- conventional wines;
- organic wines;
- biodynamic wines;
- natural wines;
- vegan wines.
Conventional wine[modification | edit wikitext]
The "conventional wine" is, in fact, the wine that we all know. It is so called slangly to differentiate it from other categories (e.g. organic wine). It represents the wine obtained using the systems and methods currently permitted by law.
In Italy, the first definition of "wine" was sanctioned with the Royal Decree of 15 October 1925 n. 2033.
Currently the Italian and European legal systems are full of laws and regulations that specify, in detail, all the prescriptions, prohibitions and definitions for the production and marketing of wine.
All the typologies mentioned in this paragraph are, in fact, a subset of this definition.
Organic wine[modification | edit wikitext]
- EC Reg. No. 834/07 and EC Reg. N ° 889/08 as regards mainly the agronomic management of the vineyards, or the production of grapes from certified organic agriculture;
- EC Reg. No. 203/12 as regards mainly the oenological aspects and winemaking, or the production of organic wine from grapes from organic agriculture;
In the aforementioned regulations and in the relative annexes you will find all the production indications and the limitations of intervention by the manufacturer. Being a certified product, there is a control system that ensures that the provisions are followed in all stages of wine making, from the vineyard to the bottle.
In summary, the characteristics of organic wine are:
- the grapes used come from certified organic agriculture. This implies bans on the use of pesticides, herbicides, pesticides and synthetic fertilizers. The regulation is very clear on what can be used. (Eg copper & sulfur as pesticides and, above all, the maximum allowable quantities). In addition, the regulation also imposes practices on the farmer to ensure the fertility of the land and sustainable agriculture (e.g. green manure, crop rotation, compulsory planting of favino, etc.)
- the winemaking practices take place according to a specification that imposes prohibitions in the use of adjuvants and additives. The few permitted products must obviously have certified organic origin and within well-defined and well-defined limits,
- sulfur dioxide levels in the bottled product reduced compared to "conventional" wine (currently 100 mg / l for dry red wines, and 150 for dry white wines),
- The producer undergoes a certification process by a certification body for what concerns the whole production process and the wine can be placed on the market only after the positive outcome of the control process;
- all stages of production, from the vineyard to the bottle, are traced through suitable document flows;
- authorized logo to be affixed on the label that reports the product certification and the certification body that carries out the checks.
Biodynamic wine[modification | edit wikitext]
From the regulatory point of view, there is still no definition of "biodynamic wine".
The so-called biodynamic wine, or wine produced following the dictates ofbiodynamic agriculture, is a wine produced according to the "cosmic" type vision anthroposophy through the teachings of Rudolf Steiner.
There is a worldwide private association of biodynamic producers (also based in Italy), Demeter, which verifies and approves the product by affixing its own trademark (Demeter / Biodynamic® wine). A specific specification is used, effectively creating a product certification which, for some stages of production, it relies on the disciplinary and controls of the EU regulation concerning organic wine. Biodynamic wines can have, in some cases, even stricter limits[not clear] than those related to organic wine.
There is no scientifically verifiable evidence of any chemical-physical difference between wine obtained by traditional ways and with biodynamic methods. Scientifically it is therefore to be considered one superstition.
Natural wine[modification | edit wikitext]
To date, the definition of "does not exist from a regulatory and legislative point of viewnatural wine".
The so-called "natural" wine is generally produced by those small winemakers who, while adhering to all the "naturalistic" principles of organic and biodynamic agriculture, do not want to adhere to regulations, certifications, etc. In practice, they do not use synthetic products or invasive practices, but feel a little constrained by technical or philosophical requirements whatsoever.
Unlike the other categories (e.g. organic wine), the philosophy of natural wine is conceived so that the product is obtained by not using any of the substances admitted in winemaking by other methods (apart from very low quantities of sulfur dioxide). Similarly, the common chemical-physical processes of the cellar are not used for the treatment of musts and wines (allowed for organic wine, and some for biodynamic).
Those who claim to produce natural wines often appeal to the wine concept of terroir as a key to making wine in respect of the cycles of nature and, above all, to encourage the expression and typicality of the area (indigenous grape variety, soil, climate, tradition).
However, since there is no legal definition of "natural wine", let alone a product or process certification, this type of wine remains controversial as it is not demonstrable to the consumer that many of the philosophies declared are actually applied by the producer himself in the agronomic and oenological phase (e.g. the use of indigenous yeasts or the non-use of synthetic products). On the contrary, in organic wine, there are Community rules of reference, a protocol of checks carried out by a certification body third, accredited and recognized by Accredia, to which each individual producer submits, thus protecting the truthfulness and adherence to the specification before the consumer.
In addition, to date, there are no legally recognized and internationally agreed disciplines to follow to produce "natural wine". On the other hand, there are producer groups (the French ones are the oldest and best known), including national ones, which bring together producers of natural wines and which aim to respect internal rules of the association.
In conclusion, "natural wine" is a definition that can be misleading and that is not enough to indicate, by itself, the greater "naturalness" of the product compared to other categories of wine (eg conventional wine). The generic definition "natural wine", in fact, is not reflected in the environmental product declarations or in the community regulation EC Reg. N ° 1169/11 concerning the provision of food information to consumers.
Vegan wine[modification | edit wikitext]
This classification includes all those wines that have undergone a verification process, carried out by a third party, aimed at indicating that all production processes, agronomic and oenological, have been carried out not using any product and / or equipment of origin animal.
These wines usually have a specific market, that is, of all those consumers vegans who therefore want a product in the total absence of animal exploitation.
Usually, the certifications for this type of product have as minimum requirements:
- the ban on the use of animal-based equipment at all stages of the process. (E.g. plowing the bottom with oxen)
- the absolute ban on using additives of animal origin during the winemaking phase (e.g. albumin or casein)
- that all the materials used are not of animal origin (e.g. Packaging),
- that a special sticker (which varies according to the certification body) is affixed on the label, which confirms the vegan characteristics of the wine.
Although there is no real regulatory definition of vegan wine, the certifications support their validity on the following (non-exhaustive) list of standards:
- EC Reg. N ° 1829 and 1830 of 2003 on GMO food and traceability,
- UNI EN ISO 22005: 2008, certification concerning the traceability of the production chain,
- EC Reg. No. 1169/11 on the communication of food information to consumers.
- Europen Vegetarian Union, 2015, for the definitions of "vegetarian" is "vegan", in accordance with the European legislation referred to in the point above.
The conservation of wine[modification | edit wikitext]
Containers for storing wine[modification | edit wikitext]
Types of bottles[modification | edit wikitext]
Bottle of wine from Kazakhstan
Korean wine bottle 15th century
Bottle of Iranian wine from the 17th century
Wine bottles from the XVIII century
Other containers[modification | edit wikitext]
These are the main types of containers in which wine can be contained:
Wine aging[modification | edit wikitext]
Distillation of wine[modification | edit wikitext]
The consumption of wine[modification | edit wikitext]
Containers for wine consumption[modification | edit wikitext]
Pairings with courses[modification | edit wikitext]
Wine production[modification | edit wikitext]
Major producer and consumer countries[modification | edit wikitext]
The production areas in the world are:
- in Italy: all regions.
- in France: the Gironde, between the Bordeaux province, the Lesparre-Médoc is Libourne; there Burgundy and the Beaujolais; there Champagne; L'Alsace; there Loire valley with the Touraine, the Berry and the north ofAuvergne; there Rhone valley; the Southwest (Bergerac, valley of the Garonne, Béarn, Basque country, Cahors, Aveyron); there Jura and the Savoia; there Meuse and the Moselle in Lorraine; there Languedoc-Roussillon; there Provence; there Corsica;
- in Germany: around the river Reno; southwest of Koblenz, along the Moselle; along the Neckar near Stuttgart; close Wurzburg, along the Less; the valley of the Nahe; Hesse Bergstraße;
- in Luxembourg: Moselle valley;
- in Spain: the area of Rioja and the Navarra; there Castile La Mancha; there Catalonia; the area of the Sherry around Jerez de la Frontera; there Ribera del Duero; the region of Valencia; the islands Canaries;
- in Portugal: all regions, the Minho (Vinho Verde) and the Douro (Vinho do Porto); Trás-os-Montes, Beiras; Dão; Bairrada; Lisboa; Penínsola de Setúbal; Alentejo; Algarve; the island of Madeira and the island of Açores.
- in Lebanon: especially the Beqa Valley;
- in USA: in California: le Napa, Mendocino is Sonoma valleys; further north between theAlameda and the mountains of Santa Cruz and along the river of Salinas; but also in Oregon, Idaho is Washington;
- in Argentine: in the provinces of Mendoza, San Juan, La Rioja, Salta, Rio Negro, Cordobaetc;
- in Chile;
- in the area of Tokaji between Slovakia is Hungary;
- in Syria: in theAleppo, in theHoms It is in the Damascus;
- in Cyprus;
- in Australia: in Victoria and in Tasmania; in some areas of the New South Wales; in South Australia (around Adelaide; along the river Margaret River and elsewhere;
- in New Zeland;
- in South Africa, to the south;
- in slovenia
- in 'Austria Oriental;
- in Switzerland especially in the Canton Ticino, in the Valais and in the Lake Geneva area;
- in Czech Republic: the Moravia;
- in Croatia;
- in Greece: in fruit salad, in Peloponnese south and a Crete;
- in Bulgaria;
- in Albania;
- in Georgia;
- in tunisia;
- to Malta;
- in Morocco;
- in Turkey;
- in Mexico, especially in the state of Sonora;
- in Brazil: in St. Paul; Santa Catarina; It is in the Rio Grande do Sul;
- in Jump, in Uruguay;
- in Peru: in theIca;
- in algeria: in province of Oran
- in China;
- in India;
- in Iran
- in Japan;
- in Romania: in the Eastern Region - Moldova, Cotnari, Southern Region - Craiova;
- in Moldova: in the Central and Southern Region of the country (Orhei, Stefan Voda, Ialoveni, Hincesti, Comrat): Chateau Vartelly, Purcari, Milestii Mici, Cricova, Vitis Hincesti, Tomaj, etc.
- in Russia, in the far south;
- in Israel;
- in Canada.
The top ten world producers of wine[modification | edit wikitext]
country thousands of quintals Italy 87.000 (13,14%) France 67.785 (10,33%) United States of America 63.275 (9,645%) Spain 59.258 (9,03%) China 56.000 (8,53%) Turkey 36.500 (5,56%) Argentine 28.297 (4,31%) Iran 28.000 (4,27%) Chile 22.500 (3,43%) Australia 20.265 (3,09%)
The evolution of wine production in the European Union in 2005 is 2006[modification | edit wikitext]
Forecasting 2006 (thousands of hectoliters)
Forecasting 2005 (thousands of hectoliters)
In 2003, world wine production had risen to 269 million hectoliters.
The fifteen main producers were:
country million hectoliters France 47,3 Italy 46,8 Spain 39,5 United States of America 23,5 Australia 12,6 Argentine 12,2 China 10,8 Germany 10,2 South Africa 7,6 Portugal 6,8 Chile 5,8 Romania 5,5 Greece 4,2 Russia 4,1 Hungary 4,0
The top ten wine exporting countries[modification | edit wikitext]
country thousands of hectoliters Italy 15.100 Spain 14.439 France 13.900 Australia 7019 Chile 4209 United States of America 3482 Germany 2970 South Africa 2818 Portugal 2800 Moldova 2425
regulatory[modification | edit wikitext]
European Union[modification | edit wikitext]
nell 'European Union the production and classification of wines are governed by specific community regulations and the relevant national application rules. Over the past few years, the legislation has been updated with the issue of the new CMO "Wine"; the main reference is the EC Regulation no. 479/2008 of the Council as regards protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications, traditional terms, labeling and presentation of certain wine products. The new regulation has been in effect since 1 August 2009.
The old legislation provided for the distinction of wines in two main categories: Table wines and Quality wines produced in specific regions (QWPSR). Now, the conceptual macro distinction is between Geographical wine is Wine without Geographical Origin: the first (PDO and PGI) are those that have a territorial link and a disciplinary, the latter have neither territorial nor disciplinary production links (in essence, they are those previously defined as "table wines").
Another important novelty is that the controls, as for all the other PDO and PGI products, are no longer entrusted to the Protection Consortia but to the Control Bodies, in practice Certification Bodies accredited. Therefore, obtaining and maintaining DOCG, DOC and IGT are in all respects certification of mandatory product (obviously for those who adhere to it, being able to produce generic wine and therefore free themselves from the disciplinary and laws on wines with denomination / indication).
Clearly, the regulations for designation and labeling have also been updated (Reg. Ce 607/2009).
The official subdivision now distinguishes (in ascending order of specificity):
- Wine (ex "table wine");
- Varietal wine and / or Vintage wine;
- Protected Geographical Indication wine IGP;
- Wine with Protected Designation of Origin DOP;
- Wine with Protected Designation of Origin DOP with indication of subzone or of the additional geographical mention.
Great care must be taken when talking about the (abused) concept of the so-called "qualitative pyramid" of wine; in fact, the categories provided for by the denomination laws deal only with the quality of the productive process not the quality of the product itself. Even the various specifications for denomination wines provide "minimum" requirements and are, as far as organoleptic characteristics are concerned, very generic. A national legislation on denominations which, on the other hand, historically comes very close to a model of qualitative hierarchy on wine, is the French one.
Italian legislation[modification | edit wikitext]
Until the publication of the Legislative Decree April 8, 2010, no. 61 (ie from 11 May 2010) the Italian legislation on wine was governed by the historic Law nº164 of 10/2/1992, "New discipline of denominations of origin". This was the norm that established table wines, i QWPSR, etc.
The Legislative Decree 61 (Protection of designations of origin and geographical indications of wines, in implementation of article 15 of law 7 July 2009, n. 88) has abolished the old L. 164 and has implemented the new EU "Wine" CMO (Regulation Ce n. 479/2008, Wine enters the DOP era). Therefore, the old types "table wine", QWPSR, VSQPRD, VFQPRD, VLQPRD, VSAQPRD, have been eliminated (of course, you can still find labels, prior to the regulatory review, with these terms). The new European regulations on the designation and labeling of wines have also been implemented.
Although it may seem simplistic or "simplistic", it is now necessary to get used to calling the basic category of the "pyramid" only "wine" without adding other qualifications (table, etc.) as the law has abolished them. At the basis of this choice is the objective of the EU (and therefore automatically of the Member States) to divide wine (and other alcoholic beverages: beer, spirits and liqueurs) exactly like all other food products (vegetables, fruit, salami, oil, cheese, meat, etc.): those with a denomination / indication and those not with a denomination / indication. To give an example: it is not said Ham "generic" raw ham and Parma ham DOP but it is called "raw ham" and "Parma's ham"So to designate a wine at the basic level, you just have to say" wine "followed by the type, brand / producer, any fancy name, etc. Instead, when we talk about a PDO or PGI wine it is essential, first of all, designate it with the denomination or indication, only after adding the other identifications. In essence, the "sales description" of a wine must be only the "legal" one.
The EU choice to make wine understood (which, historically, has always had a specific standardization) in the large family of agri-food products has been sanctioned with the issue of the "framework" regulation, the EC Reg. n. 1234/2007 on the "ORarties Comune dei Magricultural markets and specific provisions for certain agricultural products "(single regulation CMO). This regulation was repealed with the entry into force, from 1 January 2014, of EC Reg. N. 1308/2013 "Common Organization of Agricultural Product Markets" (new single CMO).
Therefore, the Italian classification follows the European one with some peculiarities:
- 1) the traditional acronym IGT, for wines with a typical geographical indication, can be used instead of the corresponding one IGP;
- 2) also the classification of wines with a controlled designation of origin (DOC) and wines with a controlled and guaranteed designation of origin (DOCG) remains as an Italian specificity. The two categories can be used instead of the corresponding acronym DOP which absorbs both;
- 3) conservation of mentions of sub-areas or sub-names.
Suitable production disciplines (PDO and PGI wines) establish the conditions to be respected in order to return to those precise producer characteristics to guarantee the quality level:
- the denomination of origin / geographical indication
- the boundaries of the denomination / indication
- the types of cultivation of the vine
- the maximum yield per hectare
- the minimum alcoholic strength
- the physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wine
With the new legislation are only the control bodies or certification bodies (which must be both accredited in the sector of Accredia is authorized by the Mipaaf) to release the conformity of PDO and PGI wines to the specifications and therefore to grant the use of brands in marketing. This assessment is based on samples of the batch to be marketed and concerns both chemical and organoleptic characteristics. For DOCG wines, the collection and evaluation must be for each batch of bottling. In this regulatory context, each specification of each denomination / indication specifies the control body that issues the certificates of suitability before being put on the market.
The recognition of DO / GIs is, with the new legislation, carried out at European level (whereas, previously, it was at the level of each member state). In any case, the DL 61 establishes the National Committee for PDO and PGI wines, an organ of the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies whose mission is to protect and promote Italian PDO and PGI wines.
Furthermore, in the DOC and DOCG there can be a "subzone" which defines, especially in the DOCG, the restricted area of wine production. Same consideration applies to the concept of "subdenomination"which is a further nominalistic subdivision (within a denomination) and which obviously corresponds to a peculiar typology of product. The typical example of sub-denominations is that in which a denomination foresees various versions of single-grape wine (for example Garda DOC- chardonnay, Garda DOC-pinot bianco, etc.) or a macro-type of wine (Garda DOC-spumante). Another example of sub-denomination is the Satèn within the denomination Franciacorta. And again: in the Asti DOCG there are sub-names Asti sparkling wine is that Moscato d'Asti. In addition, those denominations that contain the types "sparkling", "passito", "sparkling", "late harvest", "fortified", "passito fortified", "red", "white", "rosé", "quiet", etc. . they are examples of denominations whose specification includes such mentions that correspond to "versions" (not real sub-denominations).
More relevant, however, is the concept, foreseen by some disciplinary, of subzone. In practice, a PDO wine can be labeled, together with the name of the denomination, also with the name of a well-defined and more restricted territory within the confines of the denomination. This however provided that all the grapes come only from this territory. Indeed, in some cases, even the production phases must be carried out within the sub-area and not in the area. The subzone expresses well the concept of terroir being a rather restricted area (think that there are, in fact, DOCs whose territory is the whole region). Examples of sub-areas: the DOC Prosecco provides the subzone Treviso; the DOCG Upper Valtellinahas subzones Maroggia, Sassella, Grumello, Hell, Valgella; the DOCG Asti contains the subzones Canelli, Santa Vittoria d'Alba, Strevi; the DOCG Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene includes the famous subzone Cartizze.
Even more peculiar of the subzone (and conceptually and legally different) is that of additional geographical mention. This, however, is the concretization of the French concept of cru. In practice, it is the possibility (with very restrictive rules) to label the PDO wine by adding the toponym of the vineyard from which the grapes come. It is clear that this typology is the real tip of the wine's qualitative pyramid. Illustrious examples of the additional geographical mention: the mentions within the denominations Barolo is Barbaresco, the first real Italian cases of analogy with the concepts of French crè classé.
Number of Italian PDO-PGI wines
Currently (September 2017) the number of Italian PDO or PGI wines is as follows:
- 74 DOCG (DOP / DOCG)
- 332 DOC (DOP / DOC)
- 118 IGT (IGP = IGT)
- 524 TOTAL
Wine (generic)[modification | edit wikitext]
The first level of the legal categorization of wine, according to the logic of the denominations, is simply called "wine" (without other terms). This category identifies ex "table wines"with authorized grapes, without having to comply with specific production regulations; generally, these are ordinary wines, of a more modest quality, which bear the bottler's company name on the label; they can optionally carry the color indication (white, rosé However, the term "wine", without other qualifications, is not always synonymous with "poor" quality but simply not belonging to any production specification or (at least in the EU member states) "anonymous" with respect to the logic of the denominations from.
Often, even if the law does not provide for these terms, the level "wine" is indicated as "common wine"or" generic wine "to identify the category, now abolished," table wine ". The category" as it is "wine obviously has no indication of origin, it must absolutely not indicate the grape varieties (grape variety used) nor the 'vintage.
Varietal wine and vintage wine[modification | edit wikitext]
The "varietal wine" and "vintage wine" categories are two new features introduced by the regulatory revision. These two types can also coexist (i.e. vintage varietal wine).
The varietal wine it is a wine, without denomination or origin, of which at least 85% of the grapes belong to the variety indicated on the label. The list of varieties with which a wine can be labeled as "varietal wine" mostly includes international vines.
The vintage wine it is a wine, without denomination or origin, of which at least 85% of the grapes were produced in a thousandth specific that can be reported on the label.
Both categories belong, in macro terms, to generic wines.
Typical Geographical Indication Wine (IGT)[modification | edit wikitext]
By typical geographical indication of wines we mean the geographical name of an area used to designate the resulting product. Corresponds to the European classification IGP.
This category includes wines produced in certain regions or geographical areas (authorized by law), sometimes according to a generic production specification; in addition to the indication of the color, they can also indicate on the label the indication of the grape variety or vines used and the year of harvest of the grapes. From this level of wine, a production specification becomes mandatory, drawn up and approved according to EU rules (being the first level of classification of wines with indication of origin)
It should also be specified that in the three categories described above, wines of the highest quality can also be found; their position among the "generic" wines or among the IGTs is due both to commercial choices and to the impossibility, due to their composition (vines used), to fall within the specifications of the quality wines of the production areas. Or, because a producer refuses on principle the logic of restrictive specifications or the policy of denominations. In this way, by labeling your product as "generic" wine or PGI wine, you can experiment with greater freedom.
Wine with Controlled Designation of Origin (DOC)[modification | edit wikitext]
The denomination of origin of the wines means the geographical name of a particularly suitable wine-growing area; it is used to designate a quality and renowned product, whose characteristics are connected to the natural environment and human factors.
The DOC wine category includes wines produced in certain geographical areas in compliance with a specific production specification. This Italian category belongs to that DOP European.
Such wines, before being put in businessin the production phase must undergo a preliminary chemical-physical analysis and an organoleptic examination that certifies compliance with the requirements set out in the specification; failure to comply with the requirements prevents their marketing with the DOC label.
Wine with Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin (DOCG)[modification | edit wikitext]
The DOCG wine category includes wines produced in certain geographical areas in compliance with a specific production specification. This Italian category belongs to that DOP.
The DOCG are reserved for wines already recognized DOC for at least ten years which are considered of particular value, in relation to the intrinsic quality characteristics, compared to the average of those of the analogous wines thus classified, due to the incidence of traditional natural, human and historical and that have acquired renown and commercial enhancement at national and international level.
Before being put on the market, these wines must undergo a preliminary chemical-physical analysis and an organoleptic examination that certifies compliance with the requirements set out in the specification; the organoleptic examination must also be repeated, game by game, even in thebottlingfinally, for DOCG wines, a sensorial analysis (tasting) performed by a specific Commission is also provided; failure to comply with the requirements prevents their marketing with the DOCG label.
DOCG and DOC are the traditional specific terms used by Italy to designate ex QWPSR (quality wines produced in specific regions) now PDO.
In the field of PDO wines, some denominations also include the types "Classico", "Riserva" or "Superiore".
The specification "Classico" indicates a wine produced in an area of more ancient origin within the same DOCG or DOC.
The qualification of "Riserva" is attributed to wines that are subjected to a longer aging period than that provided for by the specification and with more restrictive production rules.
The term "Superiore" is attributed to wines that have a higher alcohol content than that of the basic type of wine specified in the specification.
Label[modification | edit wikitext]
The information that must be reported on the label are established both by the standards in force and by the respective production specifications; information relating to the chemical analysis of the product must be reported, alcohol content with tolerance 0.5% by volume, calculated at 15 ° C, as the volume of alcohol and water vary differentially as the temperature changes, indication of the sulphites contained, container capacity, production municipality, company name and seat of the bottler, company name, lot. The mandatory and optional indications to be reported on the label change according to the product / legal category of wine and are numerous.
When, compulsorily or optionally, the vintage is reported, the law requires that the minimum wine ceiling of the vintage indicated is 85%.
"Generic" wine must have the word "vino" on the label and, when applicable, also the specific type ("fortified wine", "passito wine", "late harvest wine", "sparkling wine", "wine aromatic sparkling wine "," sparkling sparkling wine "," sparkling wine "," sparkling sparkling wine "). Note that color is not a mandatory qualification by law (although almost always present on the labels of bottled wine intended for retail sale) .
The varietal wine must indicate the main grape variety (if at least 85% of the grape or cut is composed of this variety) and any others in descending order of%.
A PGI or PDO wine must not include the word "wine" since the geographical indication or the designation of origin (which is, in all respects, a European quality label) is sufficient to make it clear that it is a wine (there is no written wine Barolo but only "Barolo"). Indeed, adding the word "wine" or "sparkling wine" is distorting the peculiarity of the denominations.
For a wine sparkling wine, both "generic" and PGI / PDO, qualification of the sugar content (pas dosé, extrabrut, brut, extradry, dry, demisec, dolce) is mandatory. For non-sparkling wines, the terminology is dry, sweet, semi-sweet (ex amabile), sweet.
In addition, the legislation specifies the terms for the different players in the supply chain (bottler, producer, seller, importer). The indication of the Member State from which the wine comes is always mandatory. For PGI / PDO wines, the term "fully produced"Means that the winery has produced and bottled only itself (therefore it has not made wine / elaborate / refine and / or bottle with third parties) using only its own grapes (therefore not purchased by third parties).
Regulatory details[modification | edit wikitext]
- Regulation (EC) no. Council Regulation 1234/2007 of 22 October 2007 on the common organization of agricultural markets and specific provisions for certain agricultural products, single CMO regulation
- Regulation (EC) no. 491/2009 of the Council of 25 May 2009, amending regulation (EC) no. 1234/2007 single CMO regulation), with which, in particular, the contents of regulation (EC) no. 479/2008 were included in the aforementioned regulation (EC) no. 1234/2007 with effect from 1 August 2009
- Regulation (EC) no. 606/2009 containing some methods of application of regulation (EC) n. 479/2008 of the Council as regards the categories of wine products, oenological practices and related restrictions
- Regulation (EC) no. 607/2009 of the Commission of 14 July 2009 which establishes certain rules for the application of the Council regulation n. 479/2008 regarding protected designations of origin and geographical indications, traditional terms, labeling and presentation of certain products in the wine sector
- Regulation (EC) no. 401 of the Commission of 7 May 2010 amending and correcting Regulation (EC) no. 607/2009 of the Commission laying down detailed rules for applying Regulation (EC) no. Council Regulation (EC) 479/2008 as regards protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications, traditional terms, labeling and presentation of certain wine products
- legislative decree 8 April 2010, n. 61, concerning the protection of denominations of origin and geographical indications of wines
- ministerial decree of 2 November 2010 concerning the approval of the control plan scheme, in application of art. 13, paragraph 17, of the legislative decree 8 April 2010, n. 61, concerning the protection of designations of origin, in implementation of art. 15 of the law 7 July 2009, n. 88;
- ministerial decree 16 december 2010 concerning the application provisions of the legislative decree 8 april 2010, n. 61, relating to the protection of designations of origin and geographical indications of wines, as regards the regulation of the vineyard register and the annual claim for production
- ministerial decree of 16 December 2010 concerning the general provisions on the establishment and recognition of consortia for the protection of designations of origin and geographical indications of wines
- ministerial decree of 19 April 2011 containing the provisions, characteristics, terms and conditions for the manufacture, use, distribution, control and cost of the state marks for wines with a controlled and guaranteed designation of origin and for wines with denomination of controlled origin
- ministerial decree 11 November 2011 concerning the discipline of chemical-physical tests for PDO and PGI wines, organoleptic tests and the activity of tasting commissions for PDO wines and related financing
- regulation (EC) 203/2012 amending regulation (EC) no. 889/2008 laying down detailed rules for the application of Regulation (EC) no. 834/2007 of the Council with regard to the methods of application relating to organic wine
- ministerial decree 14 June 2012 Approval of the control plan scheme, in application of article 13, paragraph 17, of legislative decree 8 April 2010, n. 61, concerning the protection of denominations of origin and geographical indications of wines
- ministerial decree 13 August 2012 National provisions applying the Regulation (EC) n. 1234/2007 of the Council, of the application regulation (EC) n. 607/2009 of the Commission and of the legislative decree n. 61/2010, as regards PDO, PGI, traditional terms, labeling and presentation of certain products in the wine sector.
Flavored wine products[modification | edit wikitext]
Flavored wine products are alcoholic beverages based on wine or other wine products (for example, must). Currently, in EU countries they are governed by Regulation (EU) no. 251/2014. In essence they are:
- a) i flavored wines;
- b) aromatised wine-based drinks;
- c) flavored cocktails of wine products.
Flavored wines should not be confused with i aromatic wines which are those obtained from aromatic vines, such as Muscat and Malvasia. In addition to aromatic wines there are also those semiaromatici, obtained from vines such as glera, sauvignon and others.
Health effects of wine[modification | edit wikitext]
Although excessive alcohol consumption also has very negative health effects (ethanol is not only a psychotropic component but it is also a substance classified by the WHO as "group 1 carcinogen"), epidemiological studies have amply shown that moderate consumption is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular problems such asheart failure. This thesis is supported by further studies on the French paradox. This paradox illustrates the relatively low incidence of CHD in France despite the relatively high consumption of saturated fats in the traditional French diet. Some epidemiologists believe that this difference is due to the high consumption of wine by the French, but this theory has no solid scientific basis at the moment. Since the average moderate drinker tends to exercise often, to be attentive to his own health, and to have a solid cultural and socio-economic background, the association between moderate wine consumption and better health could be linked to collateral factors or represent a correlation rather than a cause-and-effect relationship.
Population studies have found an association between wine consumption and risk of heart problems, represented by one J Curve: heavy drinkers present a high risk, while moderate drinkers (up to 20 grams of alcohol per day, corresponding to about 120 ml of wine at 13 °) present a lower risk than abstainers. Other studies have associated moderate consumption of other spirits may be cardioprotective, but to a lesser extent than wine. In addition, the consumption of red wine has been found to have more benefits than white wine, although other research has found no difference. Red wine contains more polyphenols white, and these compounds are believed to be particularly protective against cardiovascular problems..
In some research on animals, it has been shown that the resveratrol, chemical compound present in red wine, has protective properties for the circulatory system and towards external agents. Low doses of this substance in middle-aged mice have had effects on aging-related genetic factors, and may confer special protection on the heart. In particular, low-dose resveratrol mimics the effects of a low-calorie diet, with 20-30% fewer calories than a normal diet.
Resveratrol occurs naturally in grape skins as a reaction to fungal infections and exposure to yeasts during the process of alcoholic fermentation. Since white wine has minimal contact with the skins during fermentation, it generally has low levels of resveratrol.. Among the beneficial chemical compounds present in wine there are also other polyphenols, antioxidants is flavonoids. To fully benefit from the effects of resveratrol, it is recommended to sip wine slowly: due to the inactivation it undergoes in the bowels and in the liver, most of the consumed resveratrol does not reach the bloodstream. However, by drinking slowly, the mucous membranes of the mouth allow a massive absorption of the substance.
Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia have high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins), compounds present in the seeds believed to be responsible for the benefits of red wine on the heart. These red wines contain two to four times more condensed tannins than the other wines under study. Proanthocyanidins prevent the synthesis of called peptides endothelin, which block the blood vessels.
A study of the 2007 shows that white and red wines are effective antibacterial agents against some strains of Streptococcus. In addition, an article in the October issue 2008 de Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention stresses that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. However, if epidemiological and laboratory studies show on the one hand a cardioprotective effect, on the other there are no controlled studies on the effect of alcoholic beverages on the risk of developing heart problems or stroke. Excessive alcohol consumption can cause it liver cirrhosis is alcoholism; L'American Heart Association invites you to consult your doctor about the risks and benefits of moderate alcohol consumption.
The effects of wine on the brain are also being studied: wine produced from grapes has been observed Cabernet-Sauvignon reduces the risk of contracting Alzheimer's disease. Another study found that, among alcoholics, wine harms the mosthippocampus compared to other alcoholic drinks..
Sulphites, particularly in people suffering from asthma, can cause adverse reactions. They are present in all wines and are naturally formed in the fermentation process. Many winemakers add sulfur dioxide to help preserve it. This compound is also added in foods such as le apricots dried and orange juice. The quantity of added sulphites varies: some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. A study conducted on women in the UK, called The Million Women Study, found that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain types of cancer, including cancer breast, to pharynx et al liver.
The main author of the study, Valerie Beral, said there is little evidence that the positive effects of wine can outweigh the risk of cancer. Professor Roger Corder, author of The Red Wine Diet, replies that two small glasses of wine rich in proanthocyanidins can give benefits, even if the wines available in large retailers are highly alcoholic and have a low concentration of beneficial substances.