The wine

here I report some definitions of interesting wikipedia to deepen the theme of wine.

 

Wine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Jump to navigationJump to search
A bottle and a glass containing red wine

The wine it's a alcoholic beverage, obtained from fermentation (total or partial) of the fruit of the lives, L'grapes (whether pressed or not), or del must.

Generality[modification | edit wikitext]

The wine can also be obtained from grapes belonging to crosses of the Vitis vinifera with other species of the genus Vitis (e.g. the Vitis labrusca or the Vitis rupestris) and from grapes of species of Vitis different (such as the Vitis chunganensis).

In Italy (and in allEuropean Union), to protect a product of higher quality, price and value, the fermentation product of grapes that are not Vitis vinifera. So the term, in the case of marketing different fermented, must be omitted. A common system to overcome this prohibition is, for example, to simply quote the name of the grape variety used, obviously without mentioning the term "wine".

With this drink you can also create a distillate which, if aged for at least 12 months in wood, takes the name of brandy. The quality and diversity between wines depend strictly on vine, from climate, from ground, from the exposure of this with respect to solar radiation and by the more or less accurate cultivation of the vine itself.

Etymology[modification | edit wikitext]

Wine derives directly from Latin Vinum, from a theme Mediterranean[1] from which also derives the ancient Greek ϝοῖνος woînos[2], classic οἶνος oinos, L'Jewish יין yayin[3] and theArmenian գինի gini[4]. The Latin word was paid all 'umbrian, atOsco, to the falisco vinu, atEtruscan vin (um), to the leponzio vinom[4]; in more recent times, Vinum was loaned to Celtic languages[5], at Germanic languages[6] and from these to Finnish viini[4]. Even the terms Slavs for wine[7] they are likely to be Latin loans[8][9]. The hypothesis that Vinum has an Indo-European origin, common toHittite wiyan[10][11], has little credit today.

History of wine[modification | edit wikitext]

Magnifying glass icon mgx2.svg The same topic in detail: History of wine.

In Upper Valdarno have been found in deposits of lignite, fossil finds of vine branches (Vitis vinifera) dating back 2 million years. Several archaeological finds show that the Vitis vinifera it was growing spontaneous already 300,000 years ago. Recent studies tend to associate early tasters with that beverage already at neolithic; the discovery was thought to be random and due to fermentation natural happened in containers where men put the grapes. The oldest traces of vine cultivation have been found on the banks of the Caspian Sea and in the Turkey Oriental. In 2010 in Sicily At the underground complexes of Mount Kronio (Sciacca) and in the excavation of Sant’Ippolito di Caltagirone, the related residues from the winemaking process were discovered in a Copper Age jar, located at the beginning of the fourth millennium BC. and represent the oldest evidence of Europe.

Archaeological sites for wine and oil production.

During 20th century archaeologists stumbled upon the oldest jar of wine ever found. In 1996, in fact, an American archaeological mission, coming from the University of Pennsylvania and directed by Mary Voigt, she discovered in the Neolithic village of Hajji Firuz Tepe, in the northern part of theIran, a terracotta jar, with a capacity of 9 liters, containing one dry substance coming from bunches of grapes. The news, reported by Corriere Scienza on 15 October 2002, adds that the finds found date back to 5100 BC, then 7000 years ago, but specialists say that the wine was produced for the first time, perhaps casually, between 9 and 10000 years ago in the area of Caucasus. In fact, it seems that the first wine was produced entirely by chance (as happened with leavened bread) due to the accidental fermentation of forgotten grapes in a container.

It is however ascertained that the large-scale production of wine began between 4100 and 4000 B.C. dating inherent to the findings of the first winery found in the cave complex of the Armenian municipality of Areni[12].

The first documents concerning the cultivation of the vine date back to 1700 BC, but it is only with civilization Egyptian that there is the development of crops and consequently the production of wine.

There Bible (Genesis 9.20-27) attributes the discovery of the wine making process to Noah: after the Great Flood, he would plant a vineyard with the fruit of which he made wine which he drank until he got drunk. The Christianity sees in the wine a symbol of the blood of Jesus Christ, which during theLast Supper he defined "for the new and eternal covenant, paid for many in remission of sins".[13] The Catholicism, in particular, consider wine the species under which, in the sacrament ofEucharist, the blood of Jesus Christ would actually be present.

Under theRoman Empire there was a further impulse to the production of wine, which went from being an elitist product to becoming a drink for daily use. During this period the vine crops spread over a large part of the territory (in particular in Italy, Gaul Narbonensis, Hispania, Acaia is Syria), and as production increased, consumption also increased. In 1867 the was found in Germany bottle of Speyer wine dated between 325 and 350 AD which is known as the oldest still closed bottle of wine in the world.

In any case, the wine produced at that time in the Mediterranean area was very different from the drink we know today: due to the winemaking and conservation techniques (especially the boiling), wine turned out to be a substance syrupy, very sweet and very alcoholic. It was therefore necessary to lengthen it with water and add honeyis spices to get a flavor more pleasant.

Otherwise, i Celtic peoples already before contact with the Roman they produced light and refreshing wines[14] and kept them in wooden barrels[15] instead of in the jars.

With the collapse of the Roman Empire there viticulture enters a crisis from which it will emerge only in Middle Ages, thanks above all to the impulse given by the monks Benedictine is Cistercians. In the same Rule, Blessed he claims:

«It is well read that wine is absolutely not convenient for monks; also because in our times it is difficult for the monks to be persuaded, we also allow this, so that we do not drink until satiety. "

Gian Battista Vico in the medieval conception of wine as a kind of first necessity he perceived a character of barbarism of this era.[16]

Red wine mix, Tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century)

In the course of the Middle Ages all those cultivation and production techniques that will arrive practically unchanged until XVIII century, when production now has a "modern" character. This thanks to the stabilization of quality and taste of wines, as well as the introduction of bottles of glass and caps cork.

In nineteenth century L'powdery mildew and the phylloxera, vine diseases fromAmerica, destroy huge quantities of vineyards. Growers are forced to graft the vines that survived over vines of origin American (Vitis labrusca), resistant to these parasites, and to use regularly plant protection products like it sulfur.

In Twentieth century instead we have, initially by the France, the introduction of regulations that regulate production (controlled origin, definition of production territories, etc.) which will lead to a qualitative increase in the production of wine at the expense of quantity.

winemaking[modification | edit wikitext]

Magnifying glass icon mgx2.svg The same topic in detail: winemaking.
A tastevin, tool traditionally used by sommelier for the tasting some wine.

L'oenology is the study of wine in general. It deals with the viticulture, of the winemaking, aging (including conservation in cellar) and of tasting.

The name derives from the Greek oinos (wine) e logos (study).

Chemical composition of wine[modification | edit wikitext]

From the point of view chemist, wine is one blend liquid mainly consisting of water is ethyl alcohol (also called "ethanol").

In addition to these components, wine contains many other substances, some of which are desired, as they give a pleasant taste to the wine or have a positive effect on health (for example the polyphenols and the anthocyanins), while other substances are unwanted, as they give an unpleasant taste to the wine or have a negative effect on health (for example thesulfur dioxide, whose maximum concentration is set by law, being highly toxic[17]).

The following table shows the typical concentration values of the main components of the wine:

Component Chemical formula % by volume % by weight % in moles Note Source
water H2OR 70-90 82-85,4 92,6-94,1 It is the component of the wine with the highest concentration [17]
Ethyl alcohol C2H5OH 9-16 6,9-11,7 2,9-5,1 It is produced during the alcoholic fermentation of the sugars present in the grapes. Its volume percentage corresponds to alcoholic strength [17]
Acetaldehyde CH3CHO 0,5-30 0,37-18,1 0,17-9,1 It is a secondary product of alcoholic fermentation
Glycerol C3H8OR3 0,32-1,19 0,37-1,38 0,08-0,3 It is a secondary product of alcoholic fermentation. Its concentration increases with increasing alcohol content [17]
Tartaric acid C4H6OR6 0,17-0,45 0,28-0,73 0,02-0,1 Present in grapes [17]
Lactic acid C3H6OR3 0,08-0,33 0,09-0,37 0,02-0,08 Produced by malolactic fermentation [17]
Malic acid HOOCCH (OH) CH2COOH 0-0,44 0-0,64 0-0,1 Present in grapes [17]

Other components of the wine are:

  • methyl alcohol: particularly toxic; it is formed by the action of enzymes on the pectins contained in the grape skin;[17]
  • higher alcohols (i.e. with carbon atoms greater than 2);[17]
  • butylene is succinic acid: secondary products of alcoholic fermentation;[17]
  • acetic acid: secondary product of alcoholic fermentation; its concentration can be high if there is no adequate cleaning of the containers used for the production of wine;[17]
  • sugars: some ferment to give alcohol (fructose, glucose) for which there is only a fraction of them that has not completed fermentation, while others do not undergo fermentation (arabinose is xylose); sometimes sucrose is added to the wine during its production, but this sugar is not present in the final product as it reacts quickly;[17]
  • citric acid: is an organic acid present in grapes;[17]
  • nitrogen compounds is mineral salts: already present in grapes;[17]
  • phenolic compounds: in part they are present in the grapes and in part they are released by the wood of the cask during aging;[17]
  • aromatic compounds: they may already be present in the grape or formed during the wine production and aging process;[17]
  • vitamins: they are present in grapes; Vitamin C is not present in wine, as it is consumed during the process winemaking;[17]
  • carbon dioxide: produced during alcoholic fermentation; it has a lower concentration in aged wines;[17]
  • oxygen: absorbed by the wine during the production process;[17]
  • sulfur dioxide: it is particularly toxic; it is added in small percentages to regulate fermentation and how preservative.[17]

Classification of wines[modification | edit wikitext]

Generality[modification | edit wikitext]

Magnifying glass icon mgx2.svg The same topic in detail: Grapevine.

Wines can be classified according to different aspects. Here are the main ones.

  • nation and, in the alternative, region/ area of origin;
  • designation of origin or geographical indication of belonging. This is the main differentiation category. A wine (national, European, non-European which is the most frequent case) can also be "generic" or without a designation of origin or geographical indication;
  • typology (stationary, crisp, sparkling wine, raisin, fortified, new, and, in the alternative, white, red, rosé);
  • vintage
  • vine (variety of vine used for the production) from which the grapes come or better blend since the varieties used can be different. The most famous and widespread vines in the world (the so-called "international vines" or "Alloctoni") are among the reds the Cabernet-Sauvignon, the Cabernet franc, the Merlot, the Pinot noir, lo Zinfandel and the Syrah; among whites the Sauvignon, lo Chardonnay, the Muscat and the Riesling;
  • band of price;
  • producer (i.e. the winery that produced the wine) or (when they do not match) bottler[18]; in the case of foreign wines (especially outside the EU), the importer or distributor also appears on the label (in the case of EU wines);
  • certification (e.g. organic wine);
  • organoleptic macro classification (young / mature, drinkable / demanding, light / powerful, dry / sweet, fruity / evolved and many others).

Other factors (more technical) can be: score assigned by the guides, dish / preparation to match, alcohol content, sensory characteristics, etc. The classification of wine from the point of production method (see below) is also increasingly important: conventional, organic, biodynamic, natural, vegan.

Classification by type[modification | edit wikitext]

The wines differ from each other in the system of winemaking (normal and special wines) and for the organoleptic properties: color, perfume, taste and aftertaste; other parameters combine to define the characteristics of a wine: alcohol, acidity, flavor, sensation of astringency (due to tannins). The wines can be differentiated into still wines (also called "still"), sparkling and sparkling wines, depending on whether they are capable of releasing carbon dioxide when the bottles are opened. Sparkling and sparkling wines form the category of effervescent wines as they have effervescence[19]. The content in is a further distinction sugars unfermented wine (dry, semi-dry, sweet or other specific terms in the case of sparkling wines).

In addition, each wine is characterized by a temperature serving (ideal temperature for consumption) and optimal combinations with certain dishes.

Ordinary wines[modification | edit wikitext]

Left alt text
Center alt text
Right alt text
Glasses of white (left), rosé (in the center) and red (right) wine.

By ordinary wines are meant those wines released for consumption after having undergone the vinification process only (therefore without subsequent technical interventions or additions of other components).

White wine
The White wine it is produced with different techniques that work the white grape, in order to obtain only the juice and therefore eliminate the skins. It can also be produced from black berried grapes (for example pinot noir), immediately separating the skins from the juice, as opposed to the red winemaking process, which also involves macerating the skins to extract their color and contents. It has a yellow appearance in various shades (from greenish to amber, passing through straw and golden); it is generally characterized by floral and fruity aromas and should be consumed at a serving temperature between 8 ° C and 14 ° C; the taste prevails the sensations of freshness and acidity, although with increasing serving temperature unpleasant bitter sensations may occur. The optimal pairings are with dishes based on fish, clams, shellfish, vegetables is White meat, and in general with quick cooking dishes and sauces poorly structured.
Rose wine
The Rose wine it is produced using red grapes processed in order to obtain juice in quick contact with the skins, from 2 hours up to a maximum of about 36. In this way the skins transfer only part of the color to the must. Alternatively, the bleeding method can be used, which consists in removing part of the must during red winemaking (therefore in the presence of the skins), so as to obtain a rosé colored wine. It is completely forbidden to produce rosé wines by mixing white and red wine. The only exception is the assembly to obtain rosé sparkling wine. It has a color appearance between pale pink, cherry and claret; it is generally characterized by fruity aromas, and should be consumed at a serving temperature between 10 ° C and 14 ° C; the taste prevails sensations of light acidity, aromaticity and light body. The optimal pairings are with tasty fish dishes, pastas dry with delicate sauces, cured meat light. When it comes to sparkling wine the most usual term is rose instead of rosé.
Red wine
The Red wine it has a red appearance in various shades (from purple to ruby to garnet and orange), and is produced from the must macerated on the skins, so as to extract polyphenols and the coloring substances naturally present on them. It is generally characterized by a wide variety of perfumes (flowers, fruit, jam, herbs, spices) and by a more or less elevated sensation of softness, body and tannins; it must be consumed at a serving temperature between 14 ° C and 20 ° C. The optimal couplings are with the red meats, the game, i cheeses, and all dishes based on prolonged cooking and structured sauces.
Orange wine
Vino arancione
Glass of orange wine (Collio DOC-ribolla giallo)

The orange wine, also known as orange wine, is produced from white grape varieties with maceration on the skins[20][21]. This procedure causes the color to be typically amber and tending towards orange; depending on the process modifications, there are also gold-colored with various shades. They are almost always expressions of producers of natural wine or biodynamic wine. The possible production variants are different. Apart from the color, this particular procedure means that the "orange wines" (also called "macerated wines") have remarkably peculiar and extraordinary olfactory and gustatory characteristics[22].

New wine
The new wine is obtained by carbonic maceration. It has an intense color and strong secondary or fermentative aromas. It cannot be placed on the market before 30 October[23] (in the recent past it was 6 November) each year and it is recommended to consume it in the first six months because it is not very stable. An optimal and typical pairing of new wine is with chestnuts, and consequently with food based on Chestnut flour, like necci is castagnaccio.
Passito wine
Magnifying glass icon mgx2.svg The same topic in detail: Passito wine.
Obtained from dried grapes processed as for a normal vinification. The withering can take place naturally on the plant (thus carrying out the harvest late) or artificially placing the grapes on racks on which hot air is blown, or as a result of the so-called noble mold, or the Botrytis cinerea, which attacks the berries forming a surface blanket which evaporates the water contained in the grape, thus increasing the concentration of sugars.
Vin bulldozer
It is made with a wine blend of Carmignano DOCG through a short fermentation which slightly removes the red color of the grape skins. It is often confused by non-professionals with rosé or rosé wine, and as this is served at temperatures of the order of 10 ° C 14 ° C.
Barricaded wine
Barriques for the refinement of wine
The barricaded wine is left to age in barrels of wood, with particular reference to durmast that you get from oaks, but also of locust-tree, Cherry tree and other essences. This procedure allows the wine to age slowly through a process of redox which occurs through the wooden fibers: it gives the wine a more intense aroma, a toasted smell and the taste will be more balanced and softer. Wood yields to wine i tannins hydrolyzable (which are softer than condensed), polymers of the catechins present in the peel of the grapes and in the seeds, and spicy hints (e.g. vanilla) and ethereal which will give the wine a precious bouquet. The most prestigious oak barrels for them performanceit's barriques French of 225 liters, manufactured exclusively with oak woods coming from forest of Allier. The fact of being able to count on woods that historically come from the same trees, allows winemakers to be able to establish different parameters for the aging of wines. It should be noted that it has become common practice for very commercial wine producers to add wood shavings to the wine to give the wine wood flavors and aromas: many winemakers believe that it is a false maneuver that cannot absolutely give to the treated wine the characteristics of a real aging in fine wooden barrels. In fact, it is believed that the effect of the shavings is mainly to give the wine hints of roasting without contributing to the aromatic evolution that is achieved thanks to the particular oxidative-reductive balances that are determined in the barriques. Furthermore, in the latter there are noble lees which are the basis of the aromatic evolution of the wine and in part of its stabilization. However, the specifications and / or legislation reduce the areas in which it is possible to use the wine chips.
Sparkling wine
Magnifying glass icon mgx2.svg The same topic in detail: Sparkling wine.
It is a wine that shows a moderate effervescence due to the presence of carbon dioxide with an overpressure between 1 and 2.5 bar at room temperature. They are natural or gasified (the latter of mediocre quality). Natural ones are almost always made with the method Charmat.
Sparkling wines must not be confused with sparkling which are special wines (and have a higher overpressure): a sparkling wine can be considered, in terms of effervescence and froth, halfway between a "still" wine (that is, without any presence of bubbles, ie a "still" wine) and a sparkling wine.

Special wines[modification | edit wikitext]

Special wines are those which, after the vinification process and before being released for consumption, undergo further technical interventions or the addition of other components. This is the relevant difference with ordinary wines. It should be noted that, by law and therefore for "technical" treatments, raisin wines are not special, as are sparkling wines.

Special wines are:

Classification on production method[modification | edit wikitext]

Magnifying glass icon mgx2.svg The same topic in detail: harvest, winemaking is Alcoholic fermentation.
Squeezing thegrapes with your feet after the harvest, the first operation of the traditional production method

From the point of view of the ways in which the processes are carried out (in the countryside and in the cellar) or in relation to the use of techniques and procedures for growing vines, obtaining grapes and producing wine in terms of impact on the environment, respect tradition, adherence to sector regulations, compliance with specifications or attention to specific philosophies and production theories, we currently have:

  • conventional wines;
  • organic wines;
  • biodynamic wines;
  • natural wines;
  • vegan wines.

Conventional wine[modification | edit wikitext]

The "conventional wine" is, in fact, the wine that we all know. It is so called slangly to differentiate it from other categories (e.g. organic wine). It represents the wine obtained using the systems and methods currently permitted by law.

In Italy, the first definition of "wine" was sanctioned with the Royal Decree of 15 October 1925 n. 2033.

Currently the Italian and European legal systems are full of laws[24] and regulations[25] that specify,[26] in detail, all the prescriptions, prohibitions and definitions for the production and marketing of wine.

All the typologies mentioned in this paragraph are, in fact, a subset of this definition.

Organic wine[modification | edit wikitext]

Organic wine is the legal definition for all those wines certified from a certification body third following the community regulations:

  • EC Reg. No. 834/07[27] and EC Reg. N ° 889/08[28] as regards mainly the agronomic management of the vineyards, or the production of grapes from certified organic agriculture;
  • EC Reg. No. 203/12[29] as regards mainly the oenological aspects and winemaking, or the production of organic wine from grapes from organic agriculture;
Authorized logo applied on the certified organic wine label

In the aforementioned regulations and in the relative annexes you will find all the production indications and the limitations of intervention by the manufacturer. Being a certified product, there is a control system that ensures that the provisions are followed in all stages of wine making, from the vineyard to the bottle.

In summary, the characteristics of organic wine are:

  1. the grapes used come from certified organic agriculture. This implies bans on the use of pesticides, herbicides, pesticides and synthetic fertilizers. The regulation is very clear on what can be used. (Eg copper & sulfur as pesticides and, above all, the maximum allowable quantities). In addition, the regulation also imposes practices on the farmer to ensure the fertility of the land and sustainable agriculture (e.g. green manure, crop rotation, compulsory planting of favino, etc.)
  2. the winemaking practices take place according to a specification that imposes prohibitions in the use of adjuvants and additives. The few permitted products must obviously have certified organic origin and within well-defined and well-defined limits,
  3. sulfur dioxide levels in the bottled product reduced compared to "conventional" wine (currently[30] 100 mg / l for dry red wines, and 150 for dry white wines),
  4. The producer undergoes a certification process by a certification body for what concerns the whole production process and the wine can be placed on the market only after the positive outcome of the control process;
  5. all stages of production, from the vineyard to the bottle, are traced through suitable document flows;
  6. authorized logo to be affixed on the label that reports the product certification and the certification body that carries out the checks.

Biodynamic wine[modification | edit wikitext]

From the regulatory point of view, there is still no definition of "biodynamic wine".

The so-called biodynamic wine, or wine produced following the dictates ofbiodynamic agriculture, is a wine produced according to the "cosmic" type vision anthroposophy through the teachings of Rudolf Steiner.

There is a worldwide private association of biodynamic producers (also based in Italy[31]), Demeter, which verifies and approves the product by affixing its own trademark (Demeter / Biodynamic® wine). A specific specification is used, effectively creating a product certification which, for some stages of production, it relies on the disciplinary and controls of the EU regulation concerning organic wine[citation needed]. Biodynamic wines can have, in some cases, even stricter limits[not clear] than those related to organic wine.

There is no scientifically verifiable evidence of any chemical-physical difference between wine obtained by traditional ways and with biodynamic methods. Scientifically it is therefore to be considered one superstition.[32][33][34]

Natural wine[modification | edit wikitext]

To date, the definition of "does not exist from a regulatory and legislative point of viewnatural wine".

The so-called "natural" wine is generally produced by those small winemakers who, while adhering to all the "naturalistic" principles of organic and biodynamic agriculture, do not want to adhere to regulations, certifications, etc. In practice, they do not use synthetic products or invasive practices, but feel a little constrained by technical or philosophical requirements whatsoever.

Unlike the other categories (e.g. organic wine[35]), the philosophy of natural wine is conceived so that the product is obtained by not using any of the substances admitted in winemaking by other methods (apart from very low quantities of sulfur dioxide). Similarly, the common chemical-physical processes of the cellar are not used for the treatment of musts and wines (allowed for organic wine, and some for biodynamic).

Those who claim to produce natural wines often appeal to the wine concept of terroir as a key to making wine in respect of the cycles of nature and, above all, to encourage the expression and typicality of the area (indigenous grape variety, soil, climate, tradition).

However, since there is no legal definition of "natural wine", let alone a product or process certification, this type of wine remains controversial as it is not demonstrable to the consumer that many of the philosophies declared are actually applied by the producer himself in the agronomic and oenological phase (e.g. the use of indigenous yeasts or the non-use of synthetic products). On the contrary, in organic wine, there are Community rules of reference, a protocol of checks carried out by a certification body third, accredited and recognized by Accredia, to which each individual producer submits, thus protecting the truthfulness and adherence to the specification before the consumer.

In addition, to date, there are no legally recognized and internationally agreed disciplines to follow to produce "natural wine". On the other hand, there are producer groups (the French ones are the oldest and best known), including national ones, which bring together producers of natural wines and which aim to respect internal rules of the association.

In conclusion, "natural wine" is a definition that can be misleading and that is not enough to indicate, by itself, the greater "naturalness" of the product compared to other categories of wine (eg conventional wine). The generic definition "natural wine", in fact, is not reflected in the environmental product declarations or in the community regulation EC Reg. N ° 1169/11[36] concerning the provision of food information to consumers.

Vegan wine[modification | edit wikitext]

This classification includes all those wines that have undergone a verification process, carried out by a third party, aimed at indicating that all production processes, agronomic and oenological, have been carried out not using any product and / or equipment of origin animal.

These wines usually have a specific market, that is, of all those consumers vegans who therefore want a product in the total absence of animal exploitation.

Usually, the certifications for this type of product have as minimum requirements:

  • the ban on the use of animal-based equipment at all stages of the process. (E.g. plowing the bottom with oxen)
  • the absolute ban on using additives of animal origin during the winemaking phase (e.g. albumin or casein)
  • that all the materials used are not of animal origin (e.g. Packaging),
  • that a special sticker (which varies according to the certification body) is affixed on the label, which confirms the vegan characteristics of the wine.

Although there is no real regulatory definition of vegan wine, the certifications support their validity on the following (non-exhaustive) list of standards:

  • EC Reg. N ° 1829 and 1830 of 2003 on GMO food and traceability,
  • UNI EN ISO 22005: 2008, certification concerning the traceability of the production chain,
  • EC Reg. No. 1169/11[37] on the communication of food information to consumers.
  • Europen Vegetarian Union, 2015, for the definitions of "vegetarian" is "vegan", in accordance with the European legislation referred to in the point above.

The conservation of wine[modification | edit wikitext]

Containers for storing wine[modification | edit wikitext]

Types of bottles[modification | edit wikitext]

Magnifying glass icon mgx2.svg The same topic in detail: Bottle.